IRON SMELT Experiment Overview

2007 Iron Smelt Experiments

V1 / 2007

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Date: June 2007
Experiment: 23
Location: Wareham ON
Team: (course) Steve Mikaff, Colin Paddin
Furnace: Econo Norse
firebrick backed with sand set on plinth
tap arch (disassemble to extract)
Size: 25 cm x 60 H
Source: DARC 10/04
Tuyere: 25 mm ceramic tube
Placement: 23 cm from base
about 5 cm in from wall
angle at 22.5 down
Bellows: electric blower
Air: 800 L per minute
Charcoal: 63.5 kg broken hardwood
Consumption: about 2 kg charcoal every 8 minutes
Ore: commercial hematite grit
22.5 kg (roasted)
Sequence: ore added about every 8 - 3 minutes
charges range from .45 to 1.5 kg each
Duration: about 4 hours (not including preheat)
Result: 12.5 kg bloom - good workable medium carbon
Notes: - textbook smelt as course
Date: June 2007
Experiment: 24 / D11
Location: Wareham ON
Team: Neil Peterson, Darrell Markewitz, Ron Ross
Furnace: short shaft (half banked)
clay cobb
tap arch (top extraction)
Size: 22.5 cm x 60 (+ 15 collar) H
Source: ongoing research,
Tuyere: 25 mm ID ceramic tube
Placement: 14 cm from base
about 5cm in from wall (wall is angled)
angle at 15 down
Bellows: electric blower
Air: 900 l/m
Charcoal: 56.5 kg broken hardwood
Consumption: about 2 kg charcoal every 7 minutes
Ore: Virginia Rock (poor)
23.3 kg
Sequence: ore added about every 8 minutes
increasing from .45
Duration: about 5 hours (not including preheat)
Result: .9 kg bloom – good workable iron
Notes: - low yield expected from poor ore
first phase of 'hot swap' double smelt
Date: June 2007
Experiment: 25 / D12
Location: Wareham ON
Team: Dave Cox, Kevin Jarbeau Ken Cook
Furnace: short shaft (half banked)
clay cobb
tap arch (top extraction)
Size: 22.5 cm x 60 (+ 15 collar) H
Source: ongoing research,
Tuyere: 25 mm ID ceramic tube
Placement: 14 cm from base
about 5cm in from wall (wall is angled)
angle at 15 down
Bellows: electric blower
Air: 900 l/m
Charcoal: 42 kg broken hardwood
Consumption: about 2 kg charcoal every 9 minutes
Ore: 50/50 hematite grit + Virginia Rock (poor)
23.9 kg
Sequence: ore added about every 8 minutes
increasing from .45 – 1.5 kg
Duration: about 3.25 hours (no preheat)
Result: 3.1 kg bloom – good workable iron
Notes: - lower yield expected from poor ore
second phase of 'hot swap' double smelt
significant burn through with extended smelt time
Date: October 2007
Experiment: 26
Location: Wareham, ON
Team: Darrell Markewitz, Neil Peterson
Furnace: Norse Short Shaft
clay slabs half dug into earth bank with stone above tuyere
small tap arch (top extraction)
Size: 20 x 24 cm x 62 H
Source: suggested by LAM
Tuyere: 25 mm ID ceramic tube
Placement: 15 cm from base (no set base)
about 5 cm in from wall
angle at 22.5 down
Bellows: electric blower
Air: start at about 500 – finish at 800 l / min
Charcoal: 54 kg broken hardwood
Consumption: about 2 kg charcoal every 7 minutes
Ore: Stelco taconite
12.3 kg (roasted)
Sequence: ore added in smaller charges for most of smelt
considerable re-cycle of tap slag
Duration: about 5:45 hours (not including 1:30 preheat)
Result: 6 kg bloom – workable iron
Notes: - test of stone plate above tuyere
- test of simple 'blow hole' set up
- start with lower air delivery
Date: October 2007
Experiment: 27 / D13
Location: Wareham ON
Team: DARC – Neil Peterson, Ken Cook, Darrell Markewitz
Furnace: Norse Short Shaft
stone slabs with clay fill
small tap arch (top extraction )
Size: 25 x 35 cm x 63 H
Source: suggested by LAM
Tuyere: 25 mm ID ceramic tube
Placement: no information on base
about flush with wall
angle start at 25 down, repositioned to 10 down
Bellows: vacuum blower
Air: 410 l/m
Charcoal: 153 l / 41 kg broken hardwood
Consumption: about 2 kg charcoal every 22 minutes
Ore: hematite grit with 2.3 kg Virginia rock (poor) as seed
12.3 kg total
Sequence: ore added as small charges .5 to 1 kg
Duration: about 4 3⁄4 hours (not including preheat)
Result: about 2 kg badly sintered high carbon (not forgeable)
Notes: proof of concept on stone slab construction
large amount (+ 3 kg) unsintered iron fragments recovered
results as expected with low volume air
Date: November 2007
Experiment: 28
Location: Wareham ON
Team: (course) Peter Martin, Shawn, Scott Pond
Furnace: Norse short shaft
clay cob set on low plinth
small tap arch (top extraction)
Size: 25cm x 72 H (+ 15 cm collar)
Source: ongoing research
Tuyere: 25 mm ID ceramic tube
Placement: 10 cm from base
about 5 cm in from wall
angle at 22.5 down
Bellows: vacuum blower
Air: 750 l/m
Charcoal: 60 kg broken hardwood
Consumption: about 2 kg charcoal every 7 minutes
Ore: Stelco taconite (seed of poor Virginia rock)
18.2 kg
Sequence: ore added about every 7 minutes
increasing from .5 to 2 kg
Duration: about 4 1⁄2 hours (not including preheat)
extra long (2 hour ) split wood preheat
Result: 5.5 kg workable bloom with slight carbon
Notes: - text book smelt for teaching

TEAM PARTICIPANTS


Dark Ages Re-creation Company
Core Team:
Kevin Jarbeau / Dave Cox
Neil Peterson
Assisting:
Ken Cook / Marcus Burnham
Karen Peterson / Vandy Simpson
Gus Gissing
Special Guest:
Dr Ron Ross

IRON SMELT LINKS

Lee Sauder
Mike McCarthy
DARC - Iron Experiments



Unless indicated, All text and photographs © 2005 - 2006 Darrell Markewitz - the Wareham Forge